A look at how the Streatham portrait has been displayed over the years…


The ‘Streatham’ portrait is currently on display at the National Portrait Gallery as part of ‘The Real Tudors: Kings & Queens Rediscovered’ exhibition. The exhibition runs from 12 September 2014 until 1st March 2015.


(c) NPG 6804; Lady Jane Dudley (nee Grey) by Unknown artist

(c) NPG 6804; Lady Jane Dudley (nee Grey) by Unknown artist


The portrait was discovered at a house in Streatham in January 2006. It was announced in the November of that year, that it had been purchased by the National Portrait Gallery.

The portrait was first on display at the Gallery in Room 3 of the Tudor Galleries from spring 2007 to April 2009 and then at the entrance to the ‘Lady Jane Grey’ display from December 2009 until 15th August 2010. Between March 2013 and May 2014 it was on display at Montacute House in Somerset.

The painting was the subject of a gallery talk by Justin Nolan on June 12th 2007.

These were the main points from this talk:

‘The NPG has been aware of this painting since 1923. It is a ¾ length portrait of a woman wearing high status clothing from the 1550s.

The sitter is someone of importance. Analysis (including ‘dendrochronology’) has shown that the wood used dates from after 1593. The question is why would someone paint a portrait of a woman after 1593 wearing clothing from forty years before? There must have been something about the sitter to make it worthwhile.

The inscription dates from the same time as the portrait and cross referencing it with the known ‘Lady Jayne’s’ at the time, shows that it could refer to Jane Grey.

Jane was in the public consciousness in 1602. This is shown by Thomas Dekker’s play, ‘Sir Thomas Wyatt’. Some of this play survives and in it, Jane and Guildford are portrayed as lovers. So from very early on, the romantic notion of Lady Jane Grey existed.

It is possible that this painting belonged in the collection of a gentleman who wanted to promote his enthusiasm for Protestantism and could have been part of a series of paintings of ‘Protestant Worthies.’

This was probably not intended to be an accurate portrait of Jane but was using her as a badge of the Elizabethan Protestant Order.’

There isn’t anything in this portrait that supports an accurate representation, however, the question remains, why else produce this painting’ (Justin Nolan, NPG)


The painting was displayed between 2007 and 2009 as:

‘Memorial Portrait of Lady Jane Grey (Lady Jayne)
Unknown
16th century’ (NPG)


The postcard on sale at the time had the following information:

‘Lady Jane Dudley (nee Grey) 1537-54
After a portrait by Hans Holbein the Younger.’ (NPG)


It was displayed between December 2009 and August 2010 as:

‘Unknown, 1590s

‘This panel is one of the earliest surviving portraits of England’s shortest reigning monarch Lady Jane Grey. It was not painted from life or indeed made during her lifetime. It is a commemorative portrait made at least 40 years after her death.’ (NPG)


It was displayed between March 2013 and May 2014 as:


Room 2 - The Court of Henry VIII, Montacute House

Room 2 – The Court of Henry VIII, Montacute House


‘Lady Jane Grey
By an unknown artist
Oil on oak panel 1590s’

‘This is one of the earliest surviving portraits of England’s shortest-reigning monarch, Lady Jane Grey, despite being made some 40 years after her death. The sixteen-year-old Jane Dudley (née Grey) was nominated by her cousin, Edward VI, to succeed him and at his death was uncrowned Queen of England for nine days before being deposed and executed by Mary I.

A commemorative portrait, this panel may have formed part of a set of Protestant martyrs. Scratched lines across the eyes and mouth suggest that the painting may have been subjected to an iconoclastic attack at some point in its history.’ (Montacute House)


It is currently displayed as:

‘Lady Jane Grey
By an unknown artist
Oil on panel, late sixteenth century’ (NPG)


In May 2014, Dr Stephan Edwards published his latest findings on the portrait, at his website, Some Grey Matter. He wrote:

‘On the whole, it seems entirely likely that the Streatham Portrait was based upon some earlier reference image that depicted Katherine Parr but, like the Norris Portrait, was adapted to “become” Jane Grey in the absence of an accessible authentic portrait of Jane.’ (1)

You can read about the rest of his research at Some Grey Matter.

The National Portrait has the following text on display at its current exhibition, ‘The Tudors Rediscovered.

‘Lady Jane Grey was named as heir to the throne by her cousin Edward VI: however, she was imprisoned after only nine days’ rule when Mary successfully asserted her right to the crown. Highly educated and devoutly Protestant, it was only during Elizabeth’s reign that she became more widely known. This fuelled an interest in her portraiture and portraits such as this example were created to mark her place for an Elizabethan audience. However, no lifetime portraits of Jane appear to survive and it is possible that none were ever painted. By 1620, one image had gained credence as a lifetime portrait and was used as the basis for an engraving. However, the sitter in this image wears a jewel that is very similar to one that belonged to Katherine Parr, and may be Henry VIII’s sixth queen.’ (NPG)


In the catalogue to accompany the exhibition, it is stated that:

‘Even during the uncertain time between Edward’s death and Mary’s accession, Jane made little mark on contemporary commentators, and given the short period of her reign it is not likely that a portrait was ever produced.

…Numerous portraits have been identified as Jane, but no certain image during her lifetime appears to have survived, if one ever existed. One portrait thought to depict Jane was painted in the Elizabethan period and was probably produced in response to her growing reputation as a Protestant martyr. In this three-quarter-length image, she stands holding a book, wearing a costly, if simply painted, gown of red velvet and cloth-of-gold and silver. Tree-ring dating suggests that the portrait was painted in the 1590s, and thus it may derive from an earlier likeness, or could even have been adapted from a portrait of another sitter. Whatever the case, it is clear that the portrait served as a likeness of Jane for its Elizabethan audience. The fragmentary inscription, which identifies the sitter as ‘Lady Jayne’, suggests that it may have formed part of a set of portraits, and the scratched lines across the eyes and mouth may be result of a deliberate attack at some point in history.’ (2)




Sources

1.Edwards,S. Some Grey Matter – The Streatham Portrait Date accessed: 5 October 2014

2.Bolland, C. and Cooper, T. (2014) The Real Tudors: Kings and Queens Rediscovered, National Portrait Gallery Publications, p.99



Posted in Lady Jane Grey, Montacute House, National Portrait Gallery, Portraits, Stephan Edwards | Comments Off

Books 2014 – On sale today…


2 October – Joan of Arc by Helen Castor


(c) Faber & Faber

(c) Faber & Faber


‘Acclaimed historian Helen Castor brings us afresh a gripping life of Joan of Arc. Instead of the icon, she gives us a living, breathing young woman; a roaring girl fighting the English, and taking sides in a bloody civil war that was tearing fifteenth century France apart.

Here is a portrait of a 19-year-old peasant who hears voices from God; a teenager transformed into a warrior leading an army to victory, in an age that believed women should not fight. And it is also the story behind the myth we all know, a myth which began to take hold at her trial: that of the Maid of Orleans, the saviour of France, a young woman burned at the stake as a heretic, a woman who five hundred years later would be declared a saint.

Joan and her world are brought vividly to life in this refreshing new take on the medieval world. Helen Castor brings us to the heart of the action, to a woman and a country in turmoil, a world where no-one – not Joan herself, nor the people around her, princes, bishops, soldiers or peasants – knew what would happen next.’

From Amazon.co.uk

Helen Castor

Further details – Amazon.co.uk


Posted in Books 2014, Helen Castor | Comments Off

Books 2014 – On sale today…


2 October – Witches: James I and the English Witch Hunts (Paperback) by Tracy Borman


(c) Vintage

(c) Vintage


‘September 1613.

In Belvoir Castle, the heir of one of England’s great noble families falls suddenly and dangerously ill. His body is ‘tormented’ with violent convulsions. Within a few short weeks he will suffer an excruciating death. Soon the whole family will be stricken with the same terrifying symptoms. The second son, the last male of the line, will not survive.

It is said witches are to blame. And so the Earl of Rutland’s sons will not be the last to die.

Witches traces the dramatic events which unfolded at one of England’s oldest and most spectacular castles four hundred years ago. The case is among those which constitute the European witch craze of the 15th-18th centuries, when suspected witches were burned, hanged, or tortured by the thousand. Like those other cases, it is a tale of superstition, the darkest limits of the human imagination and, ultimately, injustice – a reminder of how paranoia and hysteria can create an environment in which nonconformism spells death. But as Tracy Borman reveals here, it is not quite typical. The most powerful and Machiavellian figure of the Jacobean court had a vested interest in events at Belvoir.He would mastermind a conspiracy that has remained hidden for centuries.’

From Amazon.co.uk

Further details – Tracy Borman

Further details – Amazon.co.uk

Posted in Books 2014, Tracy Borman | Comments Off

Website Update


1 October 2014

‘The Real Tudors: Kings and Queens Rediscovered’ by Charlotte Bolland and Tarnya Cooper added to the General Works section of the bibliography.

Entries added to the following:

Paintings – Streatham and Master John, Engravings – Van de Passe, Primary Accounts – Spinola and Writings of Lady Jane Grey – Farewell Statement.


Posted in Uncategorized | Comments Off

St Mary’s Church – Bury St Edmunds


St Mary’s Church in Bury St Edmunds is the final resting place of Mary Tudor, Queen of France and Duchess of Suffolk. Youngest sister of Henry VIII, Mary was grandmother to Lady Jane Grey.


St Mary's Church

St Mary’s Church


Mary died on 25th June 1533. After lying in state at Westhorpe for three weeks, she was buried in Bury Abbey.

According to the St Mary’s Church guide book, ‘at the dissolution of Bury Abbey in 1539 her tomb and body were transferred to the north side of the sanctuary of St. Mary’s. In September 1784 the tomb was dismantled, her lead coffin opened and her embalmed body revealed. Locks of her long golden hair were cut off, one of which can still be seen in the borough Museum. She was re-buried in the sanctuary and the original tomb top, a pre-reformation altar stone with five consecration crosses, placed over the grave. (1) *


Queen Mary's grave and the accompanying display

Queen Mary’s grave and the accompanying display


Close up of portrait of Mary Tudor

Close up of portrait of Mary Tudor


Mary Tudor and Charles Brandon

Mary Tudor and Charles Brandon


Maria Perry describes Mary’s funeral procession to Bury St Edmunds.

‘…led by the young Marchioness of Dorset, who was chief mourner, with her brother, the eleven-year-old Earl of Lincoln, the family assembled for the solemn funeral. Lady Eleanor came after her brother and sister, accompanied by Lady Catherine Willoughby, Suffolk’s ward. Mary’s stepdaughters, Lady Powis and Lady Mounteagle, came next.

…The procession formed up in the courtyard. Six gentlemen lifted the coffin from the chapel, placing it on a carriage draped with black velvet and drawn by six horses trapped in black. A pall of black cloth of gold was placed over the coffin, upon which rested a beautiful funeral effigy of the late Queen in her robes of state, a golden crown on her head and a sceptre brought specially from France in her hand. In front of the coffin 100 poor men in black carried wax tapers. Immediately behind the young Marchioness, escorted by her husband, rode a palfrey accoutred in black velvet. Lord Clifford, who was to marry Lady Eleanor, rode beside them, while ten noblewomen who had served Mary at various times rode single file behind them. Next came two carriages with the Queen’s gentlewomen and lastly the yeomen and servants.

…It was two o’clock before the procession reached Bury St Edmund’s, where the abbot and monks received the mourners and the Bishop of London waited in full pontificals. A hearse had been prepared for the coffin, all hung with black drapes, fringed and embroidered in gold with Mary’s arms and her gentle motto, ‘La volonte de Dieu me suffit.’ Banners embroidered with the symbols of Lancaster and York, the Tudor portcullis and the fleur-de-lis, adorned the church from the gate of the monastery right up to the high altar. The monks began to chant the solemn dirge and the French herald cried out at proper intervals, ‘Pray for the soul of the right high and excellent Princess and right Christian Queen Mary, late French Queen, and for all Christian souls.’” (2)


Mary's tomb

Mary’s tomb


Dr Erin Sadlack writes that ‘William Fellows, who was Marleon de Aye Herald to Brandon, records Mary’s original epitaph:

“Here lyete the Ryght noble and excellent prynces Mary frenche qwyne Suster to the moste myghtty prynce kyng Harry the viii of that name and wyff to Lews kyng of france whyche all hyr lyff tyme contynuynge pesyble qwyne dowager of france and in high favor and estymacion of bothe Reaulmes was afterward maryed to Charles duc of Suffolk.” (3)


Inscription above Mary's grave

Inscription above Mary’s grave


Mary's coat of arms

Mary’s coat of arms


In the South Chapel is the Mary Tudor Window. According to the guide book, the window ‘is by Clayton and Bell and dates from 1881. It was presented by Queen Victoria in memory of Princess Mary Tudor, Queen of France and Duchess of Suffolk.’ (4)


Mary Tudor Window

Mary Tudor Window


‘In the upper tracery are depicted Mary Tudor, Henry VIII, Prince of Castile, Henry XII of France, and Charles Brandon Duke of Suffolk. The glass shows the main events in Mary’s life (1) marriage with Louis XII in October 1514, she aged 18, he aged 52; (2) the entry of Mary into Paris, in November 1514; (3) Mary as the ‘White Queen’ in her widowhood in January 1515, talking to Henry’s ambassador Charles Brandon; (4) her marriage to Charles Brandon in March 1515; (5) their reconciliation with Henry VIII in England in May 1515; (6) Mary’s funeral at Bury Abbey in 1533.’ (5)


Close up of window showing (4) her marriage to Charles Brandon in March 1515; (5) their reconciliation with Henry VIII in England in May 1515; (6) Mary’s funeral at Bury Abbey in 1533

Close up of window showing (4) her marriage to Charles Brandon in March 1515; (5) their reconciliation with Henry VIII in England in May 1515; (6) Mary’s funeral at Bury Abbey in 1533


* The local borough museum is Moyse’s Hall Museum.


Sources

1.Paine, C.R. (2000) St Mary’s Bury St. Edmunds, Honey Hill Publishing, p.9

2. Perry, M. (1998) Sisters to the King – The Tumultuous Lives of Henry VIII’s sisters – Margaret of Scotland and Mary of France, Andre Deutsch Ltd, p.212

3.Sadlack, E. (2011) The French Queen’s Letters: Mary Tudor Brandon and the Politics of Marriage in 16th Century Europe, Palgrave Macmillan, p.156

4. Paine, C.R. (2000) St Mary’s Bury St. Edmunds, Honey Hill Publishing, p.9

5. ibid.


Posted in Places, Tudor Related | Comments Off

The Real Tudors: Kings & Queens Rediscovered – National Portrait Gallery


‘The Real Tudors: Kings & Queens Rediscovered’ opened at the National Portrait Gallery on 12th September 2014 and runs until 1st March 2015.

This free display is in the usual Tudor Galleries on the third floor of the NPG. Each Tudor monarch has their own section, starting with Henry VII and Henry VIII in Room 1, Edward VI, Mary I and Elizabeth I in Room 2 and Lady Jane Grey in Room 3.

Apart from seeing the Lady Jane ‘Streatham’ portrait back on display, the most fascinating objects in the exhibition for me, were the items that belonged to each Tudor monarch. It was great to see the Elizabeth locket ring again, to see Mary I’s Prayer book and to stand face to face with Henry VII.

As the gallery was quite crowded, I will have to wait for my next visit to read all the analysis of the paintings.

All italics are © NPG.




The crowne which it pleased God to give us.’

Will of Henry VII


The Henry VII section consists of:

1 portrait
Book of Hours belonging to Henry VII
Funeral effigy of Henry VII


Book of Hours belonging to Henry VII
c.1500
Ink and pigment on vellum

‘This book was given by Henry VII to his daughter Margaret before she left England in order to marry King James IV of Scotland. He inscribed it to her with the note, ‘Remember your king and loving Father in your prayers, Henry, King.’


Funeral effigy of Henry VII
Attributed to Pietro Torrigiano
Painted plaster and wood 1509

The head from the funeral effigy of Henry VII, was ‘modelled in plaster from the dead king’s face.’




The Rose both white and Rede/in one rose now dothe grow.’

John Skelton’s poem at Henry VIII’s coronation


The Henry VIII section consists of:

6 portraits
Henry VIII’s rosary


The portraits of Henry include ‘one of the earliest surviving portraits of Henry VIII.’


Henry VIII Unknown Artist Oil on panel, c.1520 (c) National Portrait Gallery

Henry VIII
Unknown Artist
Oil on panel, c.1520
(c) National Portrait Gallery


Henry VIII’s rosary
Carved boxwood 1509-27

‘This delicately carved rosary (a string of prayer beads) bears the Royal Arms of England and the letters ‘he8’ and ‘KA’ on the largest bead.’




What a King should England have had if God had given his his father’s age.’

Sir Richard Morison at Edward VI’s death


The Edward VI section consists of:

6 portraits
A page from Edward VI’s Chronicle


‘On this page Edward describes the moment at which he learnt of Henry VIII’s death and his own accession to the throne.’




A queen, and by the same title a king also.’

Bishop John White at Mary I’s funeral


The Mary I section consists of:


3 portraits + 1 miniature
1 miniature of Philip II
The Queen Mary Book of Prayers


The portraits include the Hans Eworth portrait of Mary.


Mary I Hans Eworth Oil on panel, 1554 (c) Society of Antiquaries of London

Mary I
Hans Eworth
Oil on panel, 1554
(c) Society of Antiquaries of London


The Queen Mary Book of Prayers
Illuminated manuscript on vellum c.1554
Unknown artist

These pages are from a manuscript containing instructions for two ceremonies that were usually performed by the monarch on Good Friday.’




Time stands still with gazing on her face.’

Verse praising Elizabth I set to music by John Dowland


The Elizabeth I section consists of:

7 portraits
3 miniatures
Locket ring


The miniatures include a coronation miniature of ‘Elizabeth I by an unknown English artist. Gouache on vellum laid on card, late sixteenth century.


(c) Chequer’s Estate

(c) Chequer’s Estate


Locket ring
Mother of pearl hoop, rubies, diamonds and enamel
c.1575

‘This exquisite ring opens to reveal two portraits beneath the diamond E: one of Elizabeth in profile, and the other of a woman in a French hood, who is probably Anne Boleyn.’




God and posterity will show me favour.’

Lady Jane Grey


The Lady Jane Grey section consists of:

1 portrait
1 engraving


(c) NPG 6804; Lady Jane Dudley (nee Grey) by Unknown artist

(c) NPG 6804; Lady Jane Dudley (nee Grey)


The portrait of Lady Jane is labeled as:

Lady Jane Grey
By an unknown artist
Oil on panel, late sixteenth century


‘Lady Jane Grey was named as heir to the throne by her cousin Edward VI: however, she was imprisoned after only nine days’ rule when Mary successfully asserted her right to the crown. Highly educated and devoutly Protestant, it was only during Elizabeth’s reign that she became more widely known. This fuelled an interest in her portraiture and portraits such as this example were created to mark her place for an Elizabethan audience. However, no lifetime portraits of Jane appear to survive and it is possible that none were ever painted.

By 1620, one image had gained credence as a lifetime portrait and was used as the basis for an engraving. However, the sitter in this image wears a jewel that is very similar to one that belonged to Katherine Parr, and may be Henry VIII’s sixth queen.’


(c) NPG

(c) NPG


Magdalena and Willem de Passe’s engraving of Lady Jane Grey from Henry Holland’s Heroologia Anglica


Read more about the exhibition at National Portrait Gallery – The Real Tudors: Kings and Queens Rediscovered .


The other Tudor portrait usually on display in the Tudor Galleries

Portraits of Anne Boleyn, Richard III and Catherine Parr have been moved to Room 4. As the light in Room 4 is much better than in the Tudor galleries, you can really appreciate the colours on the Catherine Parr ‘Master John’ portrait.


You can buy the exhibition catalogue from the National Portrait Gallery shop.

The Real Tudors: Kings and Queens Rediscovered by Tarnya Cooper and Charlotte Bolland.

Posted in Edward VI, Elizabeth I, Exhibitions, Henry VII, Henry VIII, Lady Jane Grey, Mary I, National Portrait Gallery | Comments Off

Books 2014 – On sale today – The Real Tudors


12 September – The Real Tudors: Kings and Queens Rediscovered (Paperback) by Tarnya Cooper and Charlotte Bolland

(c) NPG

(c) NPG


‘Who were the Tudor kings and queens and what did they really look like? Mention Henry VIII and the familiar image of the rotund, bearded fellow of Hans Holbein the Youngers portraits immediately springs to mind reinforced, perhaps, by memories of a monochromatic Charles Laughton wielding a chicken leg in a fanciful biopic. With Elizabeth I its frilly ruffs, white make-up and pink lips in fact, just as she appears in a number of very well-known portraits held in the Collection of the National Portrait Gallery in London. But the familiarity of these representations has overshadowed the other images of the Tudor monarchs that were produced throughout their reigns. During the sixteenth century the market for portraits grew and so the monarchs images multiplied as countless versions and copies of their likeness were produced to satisfy demand. Taken together, these images chart both the changing iconography of the ruler and the development of portrait painting in England. In considering the context in which these portraits were made, the motivations of the sitters and the artists who made them, the purposes to which they were put, and the physical transformations and interventions they have undergone in the intervening five centuries, the authors present a compelling and illuminating investigation into the portraiture of the Tudor monarchs.’

From Amazon.co.uk

Further Details – National Portrait Gallery

Further details – Amazon.co.uk


Posted in Books 2014, National Portrait Gallery | Comments Off

Salisbury Cathedral


Salisbury Cathedral in Wiltshire is the final resting place of Lady Katherine Grey, younger sister of Lady Jane.

Salisbury Cathedral

Salisbury Cathedral


The foundation stones for Salisbury were laid in 1220 and ‘the church was consecrated in 1258.’ (1) According to the guidebook, ‘with its soaring pointed arches and slender columns, Salisbury is unique in being built almost entirely in one architectural style – Early English Gothic.’ (2)


Hertford Tomb

Hertford Tomb


Katherine Grey died in 1568 and was buried in Suffolk. Her husband, the Earl of Hertford, Edward Seymour died in 1621 and Leanda de Lisle writes that;

‘William, as his only surviving male heir, inherited the title and promptly had his grandmother, Katherine Grey, disinterred from her grave in Yoxford, Suffolk, and brought to Salisbury Cathedral to be buried with her husband. Their magnificent tomb still stands in the easterly corner of the south choir aisle. The long-legged and refined figure of Hertford lies on his sarcophagus with Katherine above him, as a mark of her royal status. The inscription, in Latin, celebrates the lovers, reunited at last:

Incomparable Consorts
Who, experienced in the vicissitudes of changing fortune
At length, in the concord which marked their lives,
Here rest together.’ (3)

Tomb Inscription

Tomb Inscription

The guide book says the following about the tomb:

‘The very large decorative marble tomb is the Hertford tomb. You will notice that unusually Lady Catherine Grey is positioned higher than her husband, Edward Seymour, because of her family status. Lady Catherine’s sister, Lady Jane Grey, was proclaimed Queen of England for nine days before being executed in 1554, aged 17.’ (4)


Katherine and Edward

Katherine and Edward


Detail of the tomb

Detail of the tomb


Salisbury Cathedral is also the burial place of Elizabeth I’s lady in waiting, Helena Snachenberg and her husband.


Tomb of Helena Snachenberg

Tomb of Helena Snachenberg


017


Sources

Ives, E. (2009) Lady Jane Grey: A Tudor Mystery, Wiley-Blackwell, p.183

1.Salisbury Cathedral: A Pocket Tour, Reef Publishing, p.1

2.ibid.

3. De Lisle, L. (2010) The Sisters Who Would Be Queen: The Tragedy of Mary, Katherine and Lady Jane Grey, HarperPress, p.302

4. Salisbury Cathedral: A Pocket Tour, Reef Publishing, p.9


Posted in Lady Katherine Grey, Places | Comments Off

September Update – The Children of Henry VIII by John Guy


‘The Children of Henry VIII’ by John Guy added to the Other Biographies section of the bibliography.

Entries added to the following:

Paintings – Teerlinc, Letters – Letter to Mary and Primary Accounts – Captivity .


Posted in Uncategorized | Comments Off

On this day…21st August 1553


The Chronicle of Queen Jane and of Two Years of Queen Mary, and Especially of the Rebellion of Sir Thomas Wyat
p.19

‘Note, on mondaye the xxjst of August, it was appointed the duke with other shoulde have suffered, and all the garde were at the Tower; but howe soever it chaunced he did not; but he desired to here masse, and to receave the sacrament, according to the olde accustomed maner. So about ix of the clocke the alter in the chappell was arrayed, and eche thing prepared for the purpose; then mr Gage went and fetched the duke; and sir John Abridges and mr. John Abridges dyd fetche the marques of Northampton, sir Androwe Dudley, sir Herry Gates and sir Thomas Plamer, to masse…The lady Jane loking through the windowe sawe the duke and the rest going to the churche.’


Posted in On this day, On This Day | Comments Off